Pinus kesiya International Provenance Trials: Overview

bullet1 Introduction

bullet2 Characteristics analysed

In the sections on discussion, the traits are grouped into three sets (growth, adaptation and quality).

Trait description
Analysed trait
Height growth
Height of tree with diameter corresponding to mean basal area (HG)
Diameter growth
Diameter of tree corresponding to mean basal area (DG)
Mean volume of tree
Average of volumes of trees in plot
Standing volume per hectare
Volume per hectare
Survival percentage
Cone setting
Average score of old, open cones
Foxtailing percentage
Stemform score (1-9)
Relative wood density (Pilodyn)
Diameter adjusted pilodyn readings
Branch diameter
Diameter of largest branch at whorl at 1/10 of tree height


Growth traits:

Growth traits should be given key importance in the interpretation of trial results, as pulp wood and other products where volume has importance, is the key product of P.kesiya.


Analysis of frequency of foxtails gives an indication of the adaptability of the source to site (lower frequency in general indicates better adaptation). Moreover, and of great practical importance, foxtails are related to the quality of the tree.  Trees with foxtails often have ramicorns, i.e. thick branches from a lower whorl growing (co-evolving) vertically along with the main stem. They develop, as there are no whorls on the foxtail to suppress vertical growth of the branches. Trees with coarse branches are thus often a result of foxtails. This means lower quality, especially if timber is the final product. In addition, harvesting operations become more difficult. Apart from leading to coarse branching, foxtails will often result in stem breaks as the wood of the foxtail is of low density. Even slight wind can lead to stem breaks.

Cone setting:

Flowering and fruiting gives an indication of the adaptation of source to site. Abundant flowering and fruiting is generally interpreted as a sign of good adaptation to the site, and vice versa.